Buddha and Mahavira in search of peace Indian history general knowldege

Buddha and Mahavira in search of peace  
Indian history general knowldege


               In the sixth century BC, important works took place in the field of social and religious reform in India.  Is.  Some great reformers worked against curiosities, social inequality, and immorality that entered the social and religious spheres in the sixth century BC.  Gautam Buddha and Mahavira Swami are the main ones.  We will try to understand the life of Gautama Buddha and Mahavira Swami, his sadhana and the human religion he founded. 



Gautam Buddha: 


                 Early life  Information is available.  About 550 birth stories are associated with the ancestors of the Buddha.  There was a state called Kapilvastu in the foothills of Nepal towards the Himalayan region in India.  The Kshatriyas of Kapilavastu are called Shakya.  It was a republic.  The head of this republic was Shuddhodhan.  Mahadevi, the wife of Shuddhodhan.  Gautama Buddha was born in  Born in 566 BC to Shuddhodhan and Mahadevi.  His childhood name was Siddharth.  His mother Mahadevi died a few days after his birth.  So he was brought up by Gautami Mahaprajapati who was his foster mother.  From an early age, Siddharth was involved in education and knowledge.  Next to Kapilvastu was the ashram of a saint named Alarkalam.  Aadhaar Kalam was his guru.  Siddharth going to his ashram.  Here they were meditating.  His father became anxious as Siddhartha continued to discuss knowledge and samadhi.  He felt that Siddharth would not become a hermit, would he?  The marriage was solemnized in Siddhartha's youth.  His wife's name was Yashodhara.  He also had a son named Rahul.  Homelessness and Sadhana: At the age of about 30, he decided to leave his royal family and kingdom and become a hermit in search of enlightenment and truth.

              One night Channa and his favorite horse Kanthak went to the river bank outside the state.  Giving up his royal attire, he gave Channa all his ornaments, ordered Kanthak to go to the palace, and himself, dressed as a hermit's god, walked towards the forest.  After leaving home, they went to Rajgriha and then to a place called Puruvela.  Here he started penance with five Brahmins.  He felt that by giving up food and water and giving pain to the body, knowledge would not be obtained.  It is the great duty of man to conquer the path of spirituality and his own desires.  

                        He decided to leave the company of five Brahmins and do penance alone.  Sitting under a banyan tree at Gautama Buddha Bhodhigaya, he began the sadhana for truth and enlightenment.  After many days of sadhana, on the day of Vaishakhi Purnima, he attained enlightenment.  He attained enlightenment and became a Buddha from Siddhartha.  "Buddha" means awake or wise.  Later he was called Gautam Buddha.  Sermon: After attaining enlightenment, Buddha went to Sarnath.  Where he met his old Brahmin friends.  For the first time he preached to these 22 Brahmin friends at Sarnath.  This first teaching of the Buddha is called "Dharmachakrapravartan".  The Buddha gave a very simple and plain teaching to get rid of the sufferings of the world.

                According to him, there are four Aryan truths? 
 (1) The world is miserable. 
 (2) The cause of suffering is craving. 
 (3) The destruction of sorrow is the renunciation of weeds.  
(4) Adopting the Ashtanga path leads to renunciation of craving.  These four Aryan truths explained by the Buddha are known as the doctrines of Buddhism.  Which is also called Samyak Darshan.  

 Know this:

              Samyak Drishti, Samyak Sankalpa, Samyak Vani, Samyak Karma, Samyak Ajivika, Samyak Vyayam, Samyak Smriti, Samyak Samadhi.  "Samyak" is a Sanskrit word.  It means 'well'.

Buddha as a great reformer: 


                  Buddha was a great religious and social reformer.  He worked all his life to remove the vices that pervaded religion and society.  He had many disciples.  Many kings and kingdoms were encouraged by their humanism.  He reformed as follows: (1) Denial of God and soul: Buddha denied karma and gave importance to karma.  According to him, suffering is not possible if there is a God.  Instead of focusing on the welfare of the soul, one should live a virtuous life in the present.  

(2) Opposition to rituals: Opposing the rituals prevalent in Hinduism, he opposed it to prevent animal violence in Yajna.  He said that non-violence is the highest virtue.  The greatest duty of human beings is to treat all animals with non-violence.

  (3) Opposition to high and low discrimination: At this time Hinduism was divided into four years namely Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vaishya and Shudra.  The Buddha opposed this caste system.  “Being born into a high family does not make a person great,” he said.  He becomes great by his deeds, by his good deeds, by his adherence to truth and non-violence.  He vehemently opposed the high and low discrimination prevailing in the society.  

(4) Importance of women: In this human religion, Buddha gave importance to women as much as men.  He said that the path of Nirvana is not only for men, women can also attain Nirvana through sadhana and duty. 

 Nirvana: 

                   Buddha attained enlightenment in the shade of Bodhi tree on Vaishakhi Purnima.  After acquiring knowledge, Buddha continued to reform society and religion in India.  He guided many people.  

                    He preached truth and non-violence and opposed non-vegetarianism and discrimination between high and low.  He died in Kushinara at the age of 80 and attained Nirvana.  But his ideas and religion are still alive around the world today.  Like Mahavira Swami Buddhism, Jainism has an important place in Indian social life. 

                                     There were a total of twenty four Tirthankaras in Jainism.  Agamgranthos are important sources of knowledge about Jainism.  According to these scriptures, the first tirthankar of Jainism was Rishabhdev or Adinath.  Tirthankar Parshvanath was twenty-three.  Parshvanath was the son of King Ashwasena of Kashi.  He left home at the age of thirty and became a hermit and preached Jainism.  He studied Vedic religion and rituals and caste practices.  Protested.  He preached truth, non-violence, non-violence and non-aggression.  He was followed by Mahavira Swami in the twenty-fourth and last Tirthankar.  We will learn about them.

  Mahavir Swami: Early life: 


                 Mahavir Swami was born in the Kshatriya dynasty of Kundagram, a republic of the Vasji Sangh.  His childhood name was Vardhman.  His father Siddhartha was the king of the republic.  Mahavira Swami's mother's name was Trishladevi.  His elder brother's name was Nandivardhan.  As Vardhman was also a prince like Gautama Buddha, he acquired knowledge of many arts.  He was married to Princess Yashoda.  Vardhman's daughter's name was Priyadarshini.  Homelessness and Sadhana: 52 Mahavira Swami At the age of thirty, he left home in search of truth and knowledge.  The beggar lived a life of rigorous penance for twelve years.  On the banks of the river Rijupalik, he attained supreme knowledge.  He was called 'Jin' because he conquered his mind and senses.  Such a great hero became known as Vardhman 'Mahavir'.

Homelessness and Sadhana 


                      Mahavira Swami At the age of thirty, he left home in search of truth and knowledge.  The beggar lived a life of rigorous penance for twelve years.  On the banks of the river Rijupalik, he attained supreme knowledge.  He was called a 'jinn' because he conquered his mind and senses.  Such a great hero became known as Vardhman 'Mahavir'.  Sermon: Like Buddha, Mahavira Swami also believes that the world is full of fear and sorrow.  They deny God.  His teachings are known as the doctrine of Triratna.

  He preached the following five vows:

 (1) Ahimsa:

                     Mahavira Swami believed that violence is the greatest evil of human society.  No violence of any kind should be committed.  Even the youngest has every right to live.  Violence should not be committed even in the mind, the only true duty of human beings is to protect animals. 

 (2) Truth: 

                         Falsehood should never be uttered.  One should not speak without thinking or understanding.  Anger must be abandoned for the sake of truth.  The truth must always be followed in every situation.

  (3) Asteya: 

                  Theft is the greatest evil.  His thing should not be taken without anyone's permission.  He tried to keep the society of the time away from burglary by explaining that entering someone's house without anyone's permission was also theft. 

 (4) Aparigraha:


                       Man should not store more than his need, wealth, grains, ornaments, clothes.  He gave an important message that keeping as much as needed reduces the accumulation and as a result reaches the poor with food items. 

 (5) Celibacy:

                      He specifically told Jain monks and nuns to observe celibacy.  Know this • Triratna (Ratnatrayi) Siddhanta means Samyak Darshan, Samyak Gyan and Samyak Acharan, Mahavir Swami: As a great reformer: Mahavir Swami opposed rituals and yagnas.  He denied God.  Condemned animal violence in Yajna.  Talked about giving women equal rights.  Like the Buddha, he preached in Prakrit and Ardhamagdhi, the language of the people.  He changed people's lives with his simple and easy teaching. 

 Nirvana:
                        At the age of 72, he attained Nirvana in Pavapuri.  24 Thus about 2500 years ago today, people got new ideas from the teachings of Gautam Buddha and Mahavira Swami.  The religious practices and vices of that time were removed.  A large number of people became his followers.  Both preachers urged the people to adopt the path of peace and virtue and thus they became the promoters of the goodwill of the society.
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